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Panhandle in 1874. The U.S. Army was relentless in its Red River campaign of 1874-75. Quanah's allies, the Quahada were weary and

Mackenzie sent Jacob J. Sturm, a physician and post interpreter, to solicit the Quahada's surrender. Sturm found Quanah, whom he called
"a young man of much influence with his people," and pleaded his case. Quanah rode to a mesa, where he saw a wolf come toward him,
howl and trot away to the northeast. Overhead, an eagle "glided lazily and then whipped his wings in the direction of Fort Sill," in the words
of Jacob Sturm. This was a sign, Quanah thought, and on June 2, 1875, he and his band surrendered at Fort Sill in present-day Oklahoma.

Quanah was traveling the "white man's road," but he did it his way. He refused to give up polygamy, much to the reservation agents'
chagrin. Reservation agents being political appointees of the Federal Government, their main concern was to destroy all vestiges of Native
American life and replace their culture with that of theirs. Quanah Parker also used peyote, negotiated grazing rights with Texas cattlemen,
and invested in a railroad. He learned English, became a reservation judge, lobbied Congress and pleaded the cause of the Comanche
Nation. Among his friends were cattleman Charles Goodnight and President Theodore Roosevelt. He considered himself a man who tried
to do right both to the people of his tribe and to his "pale-faced friends".

It wasn't easy. Mackenzie appointed Quanah Parker as the chief of the Comanche shortly after his surrender, but the older chiefs resented
Parker’s youth, and his white blood in particular." And in 1892, when Quanah Parker signed the Jerome Agreement that broke up the
reservation, the Comanche were split into two factions: (1). those who realized that all that could be done had been done for their nation;
and (2). those who blamed Chief Parker for selling their country."

Quanah Parker died on February 23, 1911, and was buried next to his mother, whose body he had reentered at Ft. Sill Military cemetery on
Chiefs Knoll in Oklahoma only three months earlier. For his courage, integrity and tremendous insight, Quanah Parker’s life tells the story
of one of America's greatest leaders and a true Texas Hero.
Quanah Parker was derisively labeled a "half-breed" by the white people of his time. He was
never defeated by the U.S. Army, but decided to surrender and lead his tribe into the white man's
culture, only when he saw that there was no alternative. His was the last tribe in the Staked Plains
to come into the reservation system. Quanah, meaning "fragrant," was born about 1850, son of
Comanche Chief Peta Nocona and Cynthia Ann Parker, a white girl taken captive during the 1836
raid on Parker's Fort, Texas. Cynthia Ann Parker was recaptured, along with her daughter, during
an 1860 raid on the Pease River in northwest Texas. She had spent 24 years among the
Comanche, however, and thus never readjusted to living with the whites again. She died in
Anderson County, Texas, in 1864 shortly after the death of her daughter, Prairie Flower. Ironically,
Cynthia Ann's son would adjust remarkably well to living among the white men. But first he would
lead a bloody  war against them.

Quanah and the Quahada Comanche, of whom his father, Peta Nocona had been chief, refused
to accept the provisions of the 1867 Treaty of Medicine Lodge, which confined the southern Plains
Indians to a reservation, promising to clothe the Indians and turn them into farmers in imitation of
the white settlers.

Knowing of past lies and deceptive treaties of the "White man", Quanah decided to remain on the  
warpath, raiding in Texas and Mexico and out maneuvering Army Colonel Ronald S. Mackenzie
and others. He was almost killed during the attack on buffalo hunters at Adobe Walls in the Texas
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